Bilingual Articulation and Phonology




Introducing the Bilingual Articulation and Phonology Assessment (BAPA), the first-of-its-kind speech therapy software that automatically analyzes speech sound errors in both English and Spanish. Whether you’re a bilingual or monolingual clinician, BAPA has been crafted to cater to your assessment needs for bilingual Spanish/English students, or monolingual English or Spanish speakers. With a fully standardized measure of articulation, BAPA provides stunning auto-analyzed results and reports, making it an essential tool for speech therapists, educators, and professionals.

 Featuring multisyllabic word probes and individually normed languages, BAPA offers a comprehensive solution for assessing articulatory and phonological abilities. Spanish-speaking children represent a growing minority group in the U.S., and BAPA addresses this need with an inclusive, easy-to-use app designed by certified speech-language pathologists. Don’t miss out on this revolutionary tool in speech sound disorder assessment. 

English and Spanish Assessment in one App


BAPA English


BAPA Spanish
The Bilingual Articulation and Phonology Assessment (BAPA) is an individually administered clinical tool developed in the category of speech therapy software to assess the articulatory and phonological abilities of monolingual and bilingual speakers of English and Spanish. Spanish speakers represent the largest and fastest growing minority group in the US (US Census Bureau, 2011).
Spanish speaking children now represent 75% of all English language learners in US schools (Shatz & Wilkinson, 2010; Swanson, 2009). Through assessing both languages of a student, the professional can more easily rule out or explain second-language influences and describe errors observed in both languages as well as errors specific to each language. This may help reduce the number of students inappropriately identified as disordered (Perez, et al, 2008)

Automatically Generated Results & Reports

Stunning data is automatically analyzed for you:

Bilingual Articulation Phonology Assessment charts
BAPA app settings
smarty ears apps bapa

Best practices for assessment of speech sound disorders for bilingual children recommend an assessment of all languages spoken by the child. Certified speech-language pathologists created BAPA specifically to be used as part of a full speech evaluation. Although BAPA is uniquely designed to allow testing in both Spanish and English, the languages are individually normed which makes it appropriate to use with monolingual individuals as well!

Marking Speech Errors

Because some children will substitute vowel sounds for consonant sounds, the BAPA allows the professional to mark either as a substituted sound.
Simply tap on the button to select the phoneme used in place of the target sound. This information will be saved and interpreted by Bilingual Articulation and Phonology Assessment 
Recording errors on the BAPA is very simple. Each transcribed word is composed of phonemes colored in black and in green (see image below). Targeted phonemes are in green. When the student’s product is not accurate, the professional taps the phoneme to indicate that the production was not accurate. A pop-up menu displays for the professional to choose which type of error the client made. Simply select the appropriate option. The type of errors available to select will depend on the specific phoneme. For instance, gliding will not appear on a phoneme that is not a liquid, and fronting will not appear on a phoneme that is not a velar. The type of errors also depends on the placement of the phoneme in the word (initial, medial, final). If a phoneme is marked in error, simply tap it again to remove the error. If “Substituted” is selected, a list of phonemes will display. Simply select the sound the client uttered instead of the target sound.
phonology assessment toolkit
pumpkin for phonology assessment

Multisyllabic Word Probes in Bilingual Articulation and Phonology Assessment

When a child does not produce the /f/ in teléfono, is it because she cannot produce medial /f/ or because she reduced a syllable from a 4-syllable word? Phoneme analysis in the BAPA is limited to 1- to 3-syllable words to avoid counting a phoneme in error when the difficulty is a result of the production of multisyllabic words rather than the actual phoneme.
Instead, multisyllabic productions are assessed independently in the last five stimuli of the test. The inclusion of 4- and 5-syllable words also provides a way to identify the process of weak syllable deletion.
Multisyllabic words are included for both Spanish and English assessment.

BAPA is a fully standardized assessment!

Video Tutorial About Bilingual Articulation and Phonology Assessment


Standardization Information

The Bilingual Articulation and Phonology Assessment was standardized on 438 children ages 3;0 to 10;11 in the Central Texas area. There are three sets of standardized scores: English only, Bilingual English, and Spanish/Bilinguals in Spanish. The decision to combine the children who were in the Spanish only group and the Bilingual Spanish group was made based on statistics that indicated that there were no significant differences in the groups’ performance on the test. This is consistent with related research findings (Fabiano–‐ Smith & Golstein, 2010; Arnold, Curran, Miccio, & Hammer, 2004; Goldstein & Washington, 2001; Goldstein, Fabiano, & Washington, 2005).

Proficiency in Groups

The language groups were determined by a number of factors that included use of language in the home by mother, father, grandparents, and siblings, media exposure in each language, parent ratings of their child’s receptive and expressive proficiency in each language on scale that ranged from 0 to 3 (see below), hours of exposure during the day (see below), and the child’s ability to perform the task in each language. If they were not able to label any of the first seven test items spontaneously, the test was not administered in that language.

bilingual proficiency graph

Standardization Ages

A proficiency score was calculated based on the information provided by the parent. If a child received at least four points in a given language, and they were able to spontaneously label at least one of the first seven test items, the test was administered in that language.
239 children were included in the Spanish/Bilinguals in Spanish group, ages 3;0-10;11.
194 children were included in the Bilinguals in English group, ages 3;0-10;11
199 children were included in the English Only group, ages 3;0–‐10;11.
All of the children resided in Central Texas. Mexican Spanish was the dialect reported for 95% of those who speak Spanish. 90% of the children in the Bilingual and Spanish groups were in dual language education programs, in which they were learning to read and write in both languages.

Sensitivity and Specificity

For the analyses of Sensitivity and Specificity, the children who participated in the standardization sample, and an additional 86 students were included. 63 were in the English group and 23 were in the Bilingual English and Spanish/Bilingual group.
Sensitivity and specificity were calculated with three cut-points for each group that correspond with the common clinical cut-points of 1 standard deviation below the mean (Standard Score=85), 1.5 standard deviations below the mean (Standard Score=77)., and 2 standard deviations below the mean (Standard Score 70). The results are as follows.
bilingual articulation parameters

The Evidence Behind Bapa Plus:


  • Goldstein, B. (2001). The effect of dialect on phonological analysis: Evidence from Spanish-speaking children. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 10, 394–406.
  • Perez, B., Skiba, R.J., & Chung, C. (2008). Latino students and disproportionality in special education. Bloomington, IN: Center for Evaluation & Education Policy.
  • Prezas, R., Hodson, B, & Schommer-Aikins, M. (2014). Phonological assessment and analysis of bilingual preschoolers’ spanish and english word productions, American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 23, 176-185.
  • Roseberry-McKibben, C., & O’Hanlon, L. (2005). Nonbiased assessment of English-language learners: A tutorial. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 26(3), 178–185.
  • Shatz, M. Wilkinson, L. C. (2010). Introduction. In Shatz, M. Wilkinson, L. C. (Eds.), The education of English language learners: Research to practice (pp. 1–22). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  • Skahan, S. M. Watson, M. Lof, G. L. (2007). Speech-language pathologists’ assessment practices for children with suspected speech sound disorders: Results of a national survey. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology,16, 246–259.
  • Swanson, C. B. (2009). Perspectives on a population: English-language learners in American schools. Bethesda, MD: Editorial Projects in Education
  • United States Census Bureau. (2011). Origin of race and Hispanic origin: 2010. Retrieved from

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