The BAPA was standardized on 438 children ages 3;0 to 10;11 in the Central Texas area. There are three sets of standardized scores: English only, Bilingual English, and Spanish/Bilinguals in Spanish. The decision to combine the children who were in the Spanish only group and the Bilingual Spanish group was made based on statistics that indicated that there were no significant differences in the groups’ performance on the test. This is consistent with related research findings (Fabiano–‐ Smith & Golstein, 2010; Arnold, Curran, Miccio, & Hammer, 2004; Goldstein & Washington, 2001; Goldstein, Fabiano, & Washington, 2005).
The language groups were determined by a number of factors that included use of language in the home by mother, father, grandparents, and siblings, media exposure in each language, parent ratings of their child’s receptive and expressive proficiency in each language on scale that ranged from 0 to 3 (see below), hours of exposure during the day (see below), and the child’s ability to perform the task in each language. If they were not able to label any of the first seven test items spontaneously, the test was not administered in that language.
A proficiency score was calculated based on the information provided by the parent. If a child received at least four points in a given language, and they were able to spontaneously label at least one of the first seven test items, the test was administered in that language.
239 children were included in the Spanish/Bilinguals in Spanish group, ages 3;0-10;11.
194 children were included in the Bilinguals in English group, ages 3;0-10;11
199 children were included in the English Only group, ages 3;0–‐10;11.
All of the children resided in Central Texas. Mexican Spanish was the dialect reported for 95% of those who speak Spanish. 90% of the children in the Bilingual and Spanish groups were in dual language education programs, in which they were learning to read and write in both languages.
For the analyses of Sensitivity and Specificity, the children who participated in the standardization sample, and an additional 86 students were included. 63 were in the English group and 23 were in the Bilingual English and Spanish/Bilingual group.
Sensitivity and specificity were calculated with three cut-points for each group that correspond with the common clinical cut-points of 1 standard deviation below the mean (Standard Score=85), 1.5 standard deviations below the mean (Standard Score=77)., and 2 standard deviations below the mean (Standard Score 70). The results are as follows.